International experience of mycobiota protection

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29038/NCBio.24.1-12

Keywords:

biodiversity, fungi, conventions, IUCN, The Global Fungal Red List

Abstract

The article examines the issue of the protection of fungal biodiversity using world experience. In chronological order, the stages of the creation of international environmental protection organizations, the adoption of conventions of a non-political nature, the texts and appendices to these documents on the subject of species biodiversity were analyzed. Lists of species in the IUCN Red List were studied. It was revealed that since 1948, when the IUCN was established, 26 different kinds of International Conventions, documents and initiatives have been proclaimed/adopted. Among these documents, 8 did not address the issue of biodiversity conservation or touched on this issue indirectly, only indirectly, 18 conventions and initiatives directly related to the protection of biodiversity. Analyzing the texts of these documents, the questions to which they are devoted, and their appendices, we found that specific information about mushrooms, i.e. with an indication of the species or genus, is available only in two documents: the International Red List of Mushrooms (625 species) and the IUCN Red List (811 species). Mushrooms are not mentioned as objects of protection in any Convention.

The information about fungi that needs to be preserved is younger, compared to this information about plants and animals. Therefore, it is necessary to further consider the species composition of mushrooms and assess the state of their populations in order to include endangered species in the Red Lists of the national and international levels.

References

Shaw J. 2021 ‒ Why is biodiversity important? Blog of Conservation international. 2021-onward. Available at: https://www.conservation.org/blog/why-is-biodiversity-important (Accessed 14 May 2024).

Mueller, G.M.; Foster, M.; Bills, G.F. Biodiversity of Fungi – inventory and monitoring methods. Academic Press, Burlington, 2004; P. 32, 52.

Spooner, B.; Roberts, P. Fungi. London, Harper Collins. 2005; 594 p.

Smith, S.E; Read, D.J. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. London, Academic Press. 2008; 787 p.

Bandara, A.R.; Rapior, S.; Bhat, D.J.; Kakumyan, P.; Sunita, C.; Xu, J.; Hyde, K.D. Polyporus umbellatus, an edible-medicinal cultivated mushroom with multiple developed health-care products as food, medicine and cosmetics: a review. Cryptogamie, Mycologie. 2015, 36(1): 3‒43. https://doi. org/10.7872/crym.v36.iss1.2015.3

Fisher, M.C.; Gurr, S.J.; Cuomo, C.A.; Blehert, D.S.; Jin, H.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; Stajich, J.E.; Boone, C.; Denning, C.W.D.; Gow, N.A.R..; Klein, B.S.; Kronstad, J.W.; Sheppard, D.C.; Taylor, J.W.; Wright, G.D.; Heitman, J.; Casadevall, A.; Cowen, L.E. Threats Posed by the Fungal Kingdom to Humans, Wildlife, and Agriculture. mBio, 2020. 11(3). doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00449-20

Adeoye-Isijola, M.O.; Jonathan, S.G.; Coopoosamy, R.M.; Olajuyigbe, O.O. Molecular characterization, gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, phytochemical screening, and insecticidal activities of ethanol extract of Lentinus squarrosulus against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). Molecular Biology Reports. 2021. 48(1): 41–55. doi: 10.1007/s11033-020-06119-6. E

Dahlberg, A.; Croneborg, H. 33 Threatened Fungi. Complementary and Revised Information on Candidates for Listing in Appendix 1 of the Bern Convention. 2003; Strasbourg: EU DG. Council of Europe. 131 p.

Dahlberg, A.; Genneyc, D.R.; Heilmann-Clausen, J. Developing a comprehensive strategy for fungal conservation in Europe: current status and future needs. Fungal ecology. 2010. 3, 50–64. doi: 10.1016/j.funeco.2009.10.004

IUCN. The Global Fungal Red List 2024. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/summary/

IUCN. The Global Red List. 2024. www.iucnredlist.org/

Council of EU. Council Directive 92 /43 /EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. Official Journal of the European Communities 1992. 22. 7. 92 L 206/7

Zaveruha B.V., Sheljag-Sosonko Ju.R. Chervona knyga Ukrai'ny. Roslynnyj svit. [Red Data Book of Ukraine. Vegetable Kingdom]. Kyiv; 1996. 664 s. (in Ukrainian)

Didukh Ya.P. Chervona knyga Ukrai'ny. Roslynnyj svit. [Red Data Book of Ukraine. Vegetable Kingdom]. Kyiv; Globalkonsaltyng, 2009; 912 s. (in Ukrainian)

Domashlinec' V. Perelik vydiv roslyn ta grybiv, shho zanosjat'sja do Chervonoi' knygy Ukrai'ny (roslynnyj svit). [List of species of plants and mushrooms included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine. Vegetable Kingdom]. 2021. 84 s. (in Ukrainian)

Rossi, G.; Montagnani, C.; Gargano, D.; Peruzzi, L.; Abeli, T.; Ravera, S.; Cogoni, A.; Fenu, G.; Magrini, S.; Gennai, M.; Foggi, B.; Wagensommer, R.; Venturella, G.; Blasi, C.; Rimondo, M.F.; Orsenigo, S. Lista Rossa IUCN della Flora Italiana. 1. Policy Species e altre specie minacciate. 2013.IUCN.IT – 58 p.

Holec, J.; Beran, M. Červený seznam hub (makromycetů) České republiky [Red list of fungi (macromycetes) of the Czech Republic]. Příroda, Praha, 2006. 24; p. 1-282.

Bailey, D.; Bailey, J.; Davies, K.; Davies, V.; Hayward, L.; Nichol, P.; Jordan, M. Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, fruit body morphology, and microscopic anatomy: the Guidelines for using IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 11 and IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Second Edition. Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor. The Fungus Conservation Trust. 2014; 28 p.

Vimba, E. Latvijas Sarkanā grāmata. Sēnes un ķērpji. 1. sēj. 1996. Rīga. 1.-202. lpp. (sēnēm atvēlētā daļa - 31.-115.lpp.).

Published

2024-06-26

How to Cite

International experience of mycobiota protection. (2024). Notes in Current Biology, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.29038/NCBio.24.1-12