Notes in Current Biology 2023-02-06T18:31:41+00:00 Oleksandr Motuziuk Open Journal Systems <p>Journal "Notes in Current Biology» was founded <span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="uk" data-phrase-index="0">&nbsp;in 2021 as the successor of the journal Scientific Bulletin of the Lesia Ukrainka East European National University.</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="uk" data-phrase-index="1">Series: Biological Sciences, which was founded in 1996 as the Scientific Bulletin of Lesya Ukrainka Volyn State University.</span></span></p> <p>"Notes in Current Biology» is a scientific journal that contains the research results and review articles in the field of biology. The Journal is intended for lecturers, research staff, graduate students and students who specialize in relevant or related fields of science. The articles are published in Ukrainian, Russian or English, which meet the requirements and have received positive recommendations from reviewers.</p> <p>Publication frequency - 2 issues per year.</p> <p><strong>Registered by</strong></p> <p>Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.&nbsp;Certificate of state registration of the printed media № 24734-14674 ПР 4.01.2021</p> <p><strong>Certified by</strong></p> <p>Attestation Board of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine</p> <p>Annex 3 to Order No 735. dated&nbsp;<em>29.06.2021</em></p> <p>Founder and publisher</p> <p>Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University (43025, Lutsk, Volia ave., 13)</p> Groups of river beaver (Castor fiber) in the vicinity of the Kamin-kashirskyi city, Volyn region 2023-01-25T15:42:20+00:00 Yaroslav Omelkovets Stanislav Zhurakovskii <p>The research was conducted in the vicinity of the city of Kamin-Kashirskyi, Volyn region. The purpose of the work is&nbsp; studying the ecological features of the river beaver on the territory of the outskirts of the city of Kamin-Kashirskyi. Based on the objective, the formula of research tasks is performed: to identify European beaver ettlements in the vicinity of the city of Kamin-Kashirskyi; to study the ecological and ethological features of this animal species in the studied area; to analyze the influence of the river beaver on the biogeocenosis of the outskirts of the city of Kamin-Kashirskyi. Six beaver settlements were found on the studied territory, one of them was abandoned. A dam has been built near each of them. In total, there are 6 living and 10 abandoned burrows in these settlements. According to our data, 10 river beavers live in the discovered settlements, although a significant number of abandoned burrows indicates that there were much more of them in the past. The reasons that forced the animals to migrate from the studied area are a decrease in the water level due to summer droughts and a lack of fodder. The feed base of the European beaver in the studied area in the summer is represented by a variety of grasses: sedge, cattail, reed, nettle, plantain, reed and others, and in winter - mainly branches and parts of the trunks of willow and aspen harvested in the fall. The consequences of beaver activity in the studied territories are mostly positive. Beaver ponds, which were formed during the construction of dams, led to an increase in species diversity in biocenoses. Waterlogging and flooding of the surrounding areas near the studied reservoir is not observed.</p> <p>Animals cause some damage, hurting agricultural crops in the fields and gardens adjacent to the studied area.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Free proline organ-depented distribution in winter wheat plants during early osmotic stresses 2022-12-26T20:11:35+00:00 Larysa Bronnikova <p>Winter wheat is crop cultivar of special importance in Ukraine. Traditional breeding efforts are not enough for providing agriculture with better forms. Various cereal biotechnological approaches are actively elaborated and widely extended. The <em>Agrobacterium-</em>mediated transformation i<em>n planta </em>method is among them. This approach was used for obtaining winter wheat forms with higher level of free proline. It is known that the level of <em>L</em>-proline is regulated by cooperation of own systems of synthesis/degradation. Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (<em>Pro</em>DH) is the enzyme of proline degradation. Transgenic plants of two genotypes UK 95/17 and UK 322/17 of winter wheat and their T1, T2 progeny with introduction of double-stranded RNA-suppressor of <em>Pro</em>DH gene were obtained. 10 day T2-plants were exposed to 3 hours simulating osmotic stresses. Stress conditions were created by the addition of mannitol (0,8M) or sea water salts (25,0g/l). The levels of <em>L</em>-proline were measured separately in shoots and roots. There were genotype and organ-dependent differences between UK 95/17-T2 and UK 322/17-T2 forms. Under stress pressure levels of <em>L</em>-proline in UK 95/17-T2 line demonstrated the features of stabilization/increase, at the same time the levels of <em>L</em>-proline in UK 322.17-T2 showed the trends of stabilization/decrease. The obvious influence of transgene was not observe.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The use of natural renewal of Quercus robur L. in young pine forests of Volyn Polissia 2022-12-27T16:24:29+00:00 Vasyl Borodavka Olena Borodavka Oleksandr Kychyliuk Anatolii Hetmanchuk Vasyl Voitiuk Valentyna Andreieva Mariia Shepeliuk <p>Large-scale in recent years withering basis of the forest fund of the Polissia region – pine forests confirmed that the dominant single-storied even-aged monocultures are not able to withstand the modern challenges caused by global climate changes. Therefore, there is a need to transform pure pine forests into mixed ones, which have higher biological stability. The article evaluates the prospects of using one of the original subsidiary species of pine - common oak. The study of the state of natural renewal of oak in young pine forests was carried out on the basis of five forestry state enterprises: «Volodymyr-Volynske forestry», «Kovelske forestry», «Kolkivske forestry», «Ratnivske forestry», «Starovyzhivske forestry». Information is given on the number of natural regeneration of oak in young pine trees. It was established that mixed oak-pine formations of the curtain-mosaic type can spontaneously form in those areas where the pine initially had a significantly thinned density. Significantly better growth and development of oak biogroups of natural origin is observed in such young trees. A conclusion is made about the expediency and perspective of purposeful inclusion of oak of natural origin in the practice of the process of reproduction of new forests, which corresponds to the principles of ecologically oriented forestry.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Spreading walnut (Juglans regia) into the wild in the basin Bystrytsia Solotvynska river (Ciscarpathia, Ukraine) 2022-12-27T16:42:34+00:00 Ihor Kucherko Viktor Shparyk Andrew <p>The problem of walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em>) invasion is new not only in Ukraine, but also in all of Central Europe. Its invasion is well documented in Austria, Slovakia and Poland. Information about walnut invasion in Ukraine is still insufficient. In this study, we presented the results of a study of walnut invasion in the Bystrytsia Solotvynska river basin, including its mountain and lowland parts. In the mountainous part, the walnut is absent, and in the foothills, it forms two clear centers of invasion: in the cities of Ivano-Frankivsk and Bohorodchany, as well as their closest vicinities. Outside the cities, the intensity of invasion is much lower and the number of trees per unit area decreases in proportion to the distance from large settlements. We consider the reason for this invasion to be the presence of permanent colonies of crows (<em>Corvus frugilegus</em>) in both cities, which are the main vectors of the spread of walnut seeds. In addition, we noted the influence of a complex altitudinal gradient on the intensity of invasion: with a decrease in altitudes, the intensity of invasion increases. The greatest intensity of invasion is observed in the height range of 250-350 m above sea level; at heights of 350-450 m, it is much lower; above 450 m invader is completely absent. It is obvious that the invasion of walnut into the natural and semi-natural ecosystems of the region depends on many factors, including both biotic and abiotic. We found that the main habitats invaded by walnut are willow and willow-alder forests along rivers. However, walnut in the willow and willow-alder forests of the Bystrytsia Solotvynska basin still plays a minor role and does not form a separate type of forest. The transformation of willow and willow-alder forests under the walnut invasion is slow. To date, almost everywhere, walnut constitutes the understory, gradually reaching the second layer of the willow forests. The further development of the walnut invasion in the Bystrytsia Solotvynska basin is generally predictable. This includes the transition from primary to secondary invasion and the gradual transformation of walnut into an edifier. We also proposed a prognosis of the possible ecological and economic consequences of the walnut invasion in the Bystrytsia Solotvynska basin.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The content of carotinoids and ascorbic acid in carrot roots during the storage process in the process of presowing treatment of the seeds with metabolicly active substances 2022-12-26T19:49:06+00:00 Valentyna Havii Olena Kuchmenko Vitalii Sheiko Victor Strygun <p>The research material was carrot seeds of the Nantska variety, metabolically active substances: vitamin E (10<sup>-8</sup> M), paraoxybenzoic acid (POBA) (0,001%), methionine (0,001%), ubiquinone-10 (10<sup>-8</sup> M) and MgSO<sub>4</sub> (0,001 %), and their combinations: vitamin E + POBA + methionine, vitamin E + POBA + methionine + MgSO<sub>4</sub>, vitamin E + ubiquinone-10. The effectiveness of the studied metabolically active substances and their combinations in increasing the content of ascorbic acid and carotenoids, as well as reducing the loss of these compounds during the storage of root, was demonstrated for the first time in the roots of Nantska carrots. The greatest increase in the content of carotenoids was observed during the presowing treatment of seeds with vitamin E, ubiquinone-10 and the complex vitamin E + ubiquinone-10, and the smallest loss of carotenoids was recorded with the use of ubiquinone-10. The greatest increase in the content of ascorbic acid was observed during the presowing treatment of seeds with vitamin E, and the smallest losses of ascorbic acid were recorded when using MgSO<sub>4</sub> and the complex of vitamin E + ubiquinone-10. In the technology of growing carrots, it is advisable to use agricultural methods that involve presowing treatment of seeds with metabolically active compounds.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Variation of indicators of seed germination and linear growth of Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings under the influence of metabolically active substances 2022-12-26T20:21:06+00:00 Natalia Donets Svitlana Pryplavko <p>In Ukraine, Ginkgo biloba was considered only as a dendrological rarity – an object of artificial cultivation in arboretums and botanical gardens. A significant expansion of the use of specimens of the studied species is restrained by the lack of a sufficient amount of planting material. There is a need to use additional measures aimed at improving the processes of germination and growth of young plants. Such measures can be metabolically active substances that can be used to treat seeds before sowing. To solve the tasks, we used metabolically active substances such as: Kudesan (0,001%), Vitamin E (10<sup>-8</sup>M), Paraoxybenzoic acid (POBK) (0,001%), methionine (0,001%), magnesium sulfate (0,001%). The seed material was soaked in solutions of the studied metabolically active substances and kept for one day. Sowing was carried out in a container with a prepared substrate. The highest average root length in the seedlings of 2020 was provided by the composition of metabolically active substances in the composition of Vitamin E + Methionine + POBK, and in the seedlings of 2021 – single-component compounds of Methionine, Vitamin E and three- and four-component compositions. The indicator of the average number of lateral roots in 2020 was best influenced by both the single-component compound of Methionine and the compositions of substances: three-component (Vitamin E + POBK + Methionine) and four-component (Vitamin E + Methionine + POBK + MgSO<sub>4</sub>). In 2021, the most effective were Vitamin E, Kudesan and a four-component composition. Only the multicomponent composition of Vitamin E + POBK + Methionine + MgSO<sub>4</sub> was the most effective for the height of the stems of Ginkgo biloba seedlings in 2020. In 2021, MgSO<sub>4 </sub>and Kudesan had the best impact on this indicator. Considering all of the above, it is advisable to use metabolically active substances and their compositions for pre-sowing treatment of Ginkgo biloba seeds to obtain high-quality planting material. The use of these substances to increase the germination rate of seeds and improve the growth of young seedlings depends on the features of seed formation and the content of nutrients in it.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Cultivation of planting material in forest nurseries of the Volyn region 2023-01-18T17:28:18+00:00 Mariia Shepeliuk Valentyna Andreieva Oleksandr Kychyliuk Vasyl Voytyuk <p>Nurseries play a key role in the success of afforestation and artificial forest regeneration. The development of nurseries helps to match the demand with the production of planting material and its quality control. The article analyzes the production volumes of planting material in forest nurseries of the forestry «Pavlivske» of the state enterprise «Volodymyr-Volynske lisomyslyvske hospodarstvo», in forestry «Dolske» of the SE «Liubeshivske lisomyslyvske hospodarstvo» and the forestry «Manevytske» of the SE «Manevytske lisove hospodarstvo».</p> <p>It was investigated that the nursery of the forestry «Manevytske» is characterized by the cultivation of <em>Pinus sylvestris </em>L. The maximum number of Scots pine seedlings was obtained in 2020 on an area of 0.83 hectares, and the smallest – 0.6 hectares, in the last research years. The area of cultivated deciduous species ranges from 0.07 to 0.205 ha.</p> <p>In the nursery of the forestry «Pavlivske», a prominent place is given to the cultivation of deciduous species. Dominant positions are occupied by <em>Quercus robur</em> L. (359.1 thousand units), <em>Quercus rubra</em> L. (208.8 thousand units) and <em>Prunus avium</em> L. (10.9 thousand units). Scots pine seedlings occupy an area of 0.17–0.26 ha, or 625.7–779.2 thousand units, depending on the years of cultivation.</p> <p>It was established that the species diversity of forest planting material in the nursery in forestry «Dolske» is represented mainly by seedlings of <em>Pinus sylvestris</em> L. The largest number of <em>Pinus sylvestris</em> seedlings was grown in 2017 (1000 thousand units of plants), the least in 2015 and 2018 (700 thousand units). The number of seedlings of leafy species was reproduced the most in 2019 and amounted to a total of 81.000 seedlings, of which the vast majority of 50.000 pcs. are selection seedlings of <em>Quercus robur</em>.</p> <p>The accounting of plantings of the forestry fund shows an increase in the area of created forest crops (77.7–127.3 ha). The number of grown seedlings is sufficient to satisfy own needs only in 2016–2018, in subsequent years the difference between the need and the availability of planting material was noted.</p> <p>The peculiarities of the technology (schemes of sowing and planting, caring for crops before and after germination) and agrotechnics of growing planting material in the nursery were studied. Prospects for improving the activity of the nursery were developed and ways to improve the cultivation of planting material were proposed.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Screening of some macromycetes cultures for their resistance to Penicillium sp. (Aspergillaceae) 2023-01-18T17:14:28+00:00 Mariia Pasailiuk Lesia Plikhtiak <p>The market of mushroom products is constantly developing and improving. An important criterion when choosing certain strains of mushrooms for their industrial cultivation is their bactericidal and fungicidal properties. These characteristics are especially important for consumers of products, because antibiotics and fungicides are used to fight infections in culture, their derivates can enter the consumer's body together with the growed mushrooms. Besides, good bactericidal and fungicidal properties reduce the final market price of finished products. The aim of the work was to analyze some strains of fungi for their ability to counteract <em>Penicillium</em> sp. in conditions of the confrontation. The various variants of confrontational interactions in culture were investigated between <em>Penicillium</em> sp. and strains of <em>Hericium coralloides</em> 2332, <em>H. coralloides</em> 2333, <em>Sparassis nemecii</em> 2327, <em>S. laminosa</em> 2211, <em>Polyporus umbellatus</em> 2510, <em>P. umbellatus</em> 2511, <em>Fomitopsis officinalis</em> 5004, <em>F. officinalis</em> 2498, <em>F. officinalis</em> 2497, <em>Flammulina velutipes</em> CU. Strains of macromycete which mycelium growth over micromycete mycelium in culture we considered the most promising of further research into their fungicidal properties and use for cultivation on a commercial scale. It was established the ability to counteract <em>Penicillium</em> sp. is expressed differently in the studied species, which indicates the importance of screening cultures for their resistance to micromycetes. Equivalent antagonistic properties have been established between <em>Penicillium</em> sp. and <em>P. umbellatus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em> sp. and <em>S. nemecii</em>. The antagonistic properties of the micromycete prevail in binary compositions of <em>Penicillium</em> sp.− <em>H.&nbsp;coralloides</em>, <em>Penicillium</em> sp. – <em>F. velutipes</em>. Species that seem promising in terms for cultivation or/and for further research into their fungicidal properties and use are <em>S. laminosa</em> and <em>F. officinalis</em>, the antagonistic properties of which prevail when co-cultivated with a micromycete.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The current state of landscape complexes and biodiversity of the territory in the zone of influence of the poultry farm in the village Zvynyache, Lutsky District, Volyn Region (Ukraine) 2023-02-06T18:31:41+00:00 Kateryna Sukhomlin Larysa Kotsun Volodymyr Radzii Mariia Zinchenko Borys Kotsun Oleksandr Zinchenko <p>According to the preliminary results, the area of the study has undergone significant transformation as a result of anthropogenic impact and erosion processes caused by it. Modern natural <a href="">plant communities</a> are at different stages of their succession restoration, as a result of the specified factors and they are typical for the region. The dominant geocomplexes in the research area is the second supraflood loess terrace with a predominance of arable lands. The <a href="">plant communities</a> of the research area are synanthropic according to their floristic composition, with a high proportion of local weeds and adventive plant species. It was proved a high percentage of adventive plant species – 40.2%. Index of flora synanthropization is quite high – 88.9%. The ratio of adventive species by introduction time is almost the same: 24 species or 18.9% – archaeophytes and 27 species or 21.3% – chenophytes. The rate of general apophytization is also high (48.8%). The anthropization index is 40.2%. Index of archaeophytization (18.9%), kenophytization (21.3%), modernization (47.1%). Plant species from resolutions 4 and 6 of the Berne Convention was not identified on the study area. Only one regionally rare species was identified in Volyn region - common polypody <em>Polypodium vulgare</em> L., which grows in the tract "Posadka". Most of the registered animals are numerous in the study area, among them 25% synanthropic species, 91.7% typical species for cultural landscapes, 41.7% pests. No animal species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine were identified, the least weasel <em>Mustela nivalis</em> is included in Appendix 3 of the Berne Convention and wood nuthatch <em>Sitta europaea</em> is included in Appendix 2 of the Berne Convention. The general state of flora and fauna development, the state of biodiversity, the quality of the environment in the area of the planned activity implementation is characterized as satisfactory. Level of influence economic activity is considered permissible.</p> 2023-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 State of psycho-physiological functions in persons with a weak degree of acquired myopia 2023-01-18T17:42:04+00:00 Vitalii Sheiko Olena Kuchmenko Yulia Kushch Laura Mkhitaryan Eduard Glazkov Valentyna Havii <p>Considering the unsatisfactory state of health of the population of Ukraine, research aimed at studying the peculiarities of the functioning of the human body in the presence of dysregulatory and premorbid conditions should be considered promising for modern science. According to Center of Medical Statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine myopia during the last decade is among the top three most common ophthalmological diseases of the population. Acquired myopia develops during life as an adaptive response of the visual sensory system in response to long-term work at a close distance and, as a rule, does not lead to complex pathological complications. That is why the medico-biological and socio-economic consequences of myopia are significant for society. Cases of myopia are recorded in 2.3-31% of schoolchildren; according to other data, from 5-10% in preschoolers to 40% in teenagers or from 4-8% in first grades to 46-52% in final grades. Among students, this percentage is even higher and amounts to 25-42%. The purpose of the study was to study the features of psychophysiological functions in persons with an acquired form of mild myopia. The psychophysiological research program included the study of neurodynamic properties of higher nervous activity according to the methodology of M.V. Makarenko and the study of indicators of memory, attention and performance of higher departments of the central nervous system. Against the background of acquired myopia of a weak degree, there is an improvement in the functional mobility of nervous processes, the speed of central information processing, indicators of attention, volumes of short-term memory and semantic memory.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Features of biochemical indicators of blood in males and female with type II diabetes 2023-01-25T15:27:14+00:00 Tetіana Kachynska Daryna Bidzyura Diana Vasylyuk Natalia Podoliukh Lyudmila Milinchuk <p>Diabetes is one of the leading medical and social problems. Millions of people in all countries of the world suffer from this disease. Diabetes is third in the world after cardiovascular and cancer. Understanding the causes of the disease and its impact on the functioning of the body is important for the rational use of modern treatment and the creation of more effective therapeutic agents. The purpose of the study was to identify the peculiarities of blood biochemical parameters in men and women with type II diabetes.</p> <p>The study was conducted on 40 persons of male (20 people) and female (20 people) at the age of 45 ± 2,1 years with type II diabetes. All the studied had a long course of the disease, which was at least 5 years. The determination of biochemical parameters of blood was carried out as a result of the study of venous blood of patients.</p> <p>Biochemical blood indicators in men with type II diabetes were characterized by significantly higher rates (creatinine, urea, urea nitrogen and Weltman test), compared to women with the same diagnosis. In men with type II diabetes revealed a significantly dependence between high glucose levels and urea content, urea nitrogen and creatinine in whole blood. Biochemical blood indicators in men with type II diabetes were characterized by significantly higher rates (creatinine, urea, urea nitrogen and Weltman test), compared to women with the same diagnosis. In men with type 2 diabetes, according to the results of urea and creatinine, the process of removing metabolism products from the body slowed. Therefore, the long course of the disease in men, compared to women diagnosed with type II diabetes, is manifested by more reactive pathological changes in the functioning of excretory and circulatory systems according to blood. Obviously, for men with type II diabetes should pay more attention on diet and undergo a preventive examination for the morpho-functional condition of the cardiovascular and excretory systems.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The effect of neurobiofeedback training on cognitive functions in elderly people with COVID-19 2023-01-30T18:10:14+00:00 Sergiy Braniuk Oleksandr Motuziuk <p>The COVID-19 virus, which has infected millions of people worldwide, is causing a variety of problems,<br>including psychiatric, economic, educational, and medical. Many studies have reported that COVID-19 affects blood<br>vessels, mainly microvessels, damaging the microcirculatory system of organs. The brain is not an exception, and this is<br>manifested by the degradation of the latter&amp;#39;s functions.<br>The most vulnerable group, with a higher risk of complications, for this infection are the elderly. That is why, in<br>particular, methods of cognitive rehabilitation for this category of persons are very relevant. Neurobiofeedback training<br>(NBT) can be one of these methods. NBT is a non-invasive, safe and effective method of regulating the functional state<br>of the brain. NBT is now widely used for prevention and rehabilitation of brain diseases and improvement of human<br>executive functions and has become an important area of research around the world.<br>From our previous experiment of using NBT for the category of elderly people, we obtained results demonstrating a<br>reduction in latency and an increase in the amplitude of P300, which was manifested in the improvement of executive<br>functions.<br>In this NBT study, we tested whether COVID-19 affects cognitive function. We collected P300-based<br>electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and Montreal Cognitive Test (MoCA) responses from 26 subjects between 2 and 6<br>months after infection with COVID-19. Based on the t-test analysis, it was observed that there is a significant difference<br>between the test groups before and after the application of the training, compared to the control group according to the<br>MoSA results.<br>On the other hand, the statistical significance of P300 does not reflect the difference for both groups, although the<br>difference is visually noticeable. The reason may be the small number of subjects.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The influence of remote learning on the indicators of visual acuity of schoolchildren 2023-01-25T15:11:54+00:00 Olena Dmytrotsa Olga Korzhyk Oleksandr Motuziuk <p>The study aimed to analyze the impact of distance learning on visual acuity (VIS) indicators of schoolchildren. 120 schoolchildren participated in the survey. They have been divided into three groups (40 people each): junior (8-9 years), middle (12-13 years), and senior (16-17 years) school age. Subgroups have been distinguished by gender (20 people each) within the age groups. The following VIS indicators were compared: VIS indicators of schoolchildren who, since 2020, have been on distance (or blended) learning due to current influences (COVID-19, wartime), and whose screen time was long (ST, more than 2 hours), and the indicators of similar examinations of schoolchildren, conducted in 2011-2012 (that is, schoolchildren were not subjected to prolonged ST).</p> <p>As a result of the study, it was established that schoolchildren aged 8-9 years in terms of distance learning were characterized by a decrease in VIS indicators; girls had slightly lower VIS indicators, compared to boys. Middle- and high-school-age girls had lower VIS indicators compared to boys, independent of the effect of education.</p> <p>The obtained results and their analysis show that the visual acuity indicators of schoolchildren decrease with age; for girls, a significant decrease was established under the influence of distance learning. With age, an increase in the share of persons with reduced visual acuity indicators was established (boys from 20% (7-8 years old) to 45% (16-17 years old); girls - from 25% to 50%, respectively (among girls 16-17 years old a case with too low VIS, which is 5 %), was established. Teenagers were characterized by the highest share of increased visual acuity indicators: boys – 20%, girls – 10%.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Biodiversity preservation of the black alder forest in the Tsuman forestry (Kivertsi National Nature Park "Tsumanska Pushcha", Ukraine) 2023-01-30T18:23:42+00:00 Kateryna Sukhomlin Iryna Kuzmyshyna Tatiana Trush Mariia Zinchenko Svitlana Dyakiv Oleksandr Zinchenko <p>Field research was carried out during the vegetation period of 2022. In the Kivertsi National Nature Park "Tsumanska Pushcha"of Volyn Region were found 65 species of vascular plants and 28 animal taxa in the black alder forest of the Tsuman Forestry. Survey of a model plot with an area of 2100 m2 in sq. 25, ed. 11 Tsuman forestry operations were carried out during the growing season (14.05, 28.05, 11.06, 25.06, 16.07, 13.08, 10.09, 25.09.2022). The forest is represented by monodominant plantations of <em>Alnus glutinosa </em>(L.) Gaerth. with admixture of <em>Carpinus betulus</em> L., <em>Quercus robur</em> L.<em>, Pinus sylvestris</em> L.. The shrub layer is poorly developed. <em>Anemonoides nemorosa </em>(L.)&nbsp;Holub (syn. <em>Anemone nemorosa</em>), <em>Maianthemum bifolium </em>(L.)&nbsp;F.W.Schmidt<em>, Milium effusum</em> L.<em>,</em> <em>Vaccinium myrtillus</em> L.are common species in the grass layer.</p> <p>The distance of the research area from the urban-type settlement Tsuman and highways contributed to the significant preservation of vegetation cover – the absolute majority of plant species represent aboriginal flora – 61 species (93,9&nbsp;%). The synanthropic fraction is represented by only 4 species (6.1%), including 1.5% of apophytes, 3.1% of archaeophytes, and 1.5% of chenophytes, which indicates significant preservation of the spontaneous flora.</p> <p>The eudodominant group of invertebrates were representatives of various orders of the class Insecta 34.45%, and the dominant position was occupied by Collembola of the orders Poduromorpha and Symphypleona, sarcoptiform mites Sarcoptiformes, in particular shell mites Oribatida and spiders Araneae. The subdominants include woodlice Oniscidea, millipedes Myriapoda. Insects of this group include Carabidae, Staphylinidae, dung beetles Geortupidae, ants Formicidae, and Diptera. Recedents are earthworms Lumbricidae, harvesters Opiliones, false scorpions Pseudoscorpiones; among insects - silverfishes Lepismatidae, forest cockroaches Blattellidae, possibly Neuroptera, aphids Aphidoidea, cicadas Cicadidae, “true bugs” Heteroptera, earwigs Forficulidae, barklices Psocidae, carrion beetles Silphidae, true weevils Curculionidae, weevils Elateridae, goldflies Buprestidae, fleas Hystrichopsyllidae from the genus Palaeopsylla.</p> <p>The greatest faunal diversity according to the Margalef index (3.19) is characteristic of "windows", gaps - lighted areas formed as a result of falling trees of the first tier. The fauna of the compared sample areas are similar, the indicators of the similarity index vary between 0.90 and 0.92.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023