Adaptation potential of the cardiovascular system in schoolchildren of pubertal age
Keywords:adaptation potential, cardiovascular system, physical development, schoolchildren of prepubertal age, schoolchildren of pubertal age
Knowledge about the physical development and adaptive capabilities of the cardiovascular system in schoolchildren is necessary to understand all the changes that can cause pathologies in adolescence. The ability to correctly find an approach to the study of the physical development of both an individual teenager and in a team, and dynamic monitoring of it in healthy and sick schoolchildren, will allow timely detection of probable symptoms of damage to the body and somatic diseases, which will contribute to the prevention of the development of the disease itself, as well as the prevention of complications at the preclinical stage.
The study of physical development and adaptive reserves of the body at the beginning and at the end of the puberty period was carried out in the work. For this, a contingent of subjects aged 10–11 years (prepubescent period) and 15–16 years old (post-pubertal period) was selected. A total of 61 students were examined.
The obtained results showed that, according to the centile tables, the physical development of schoolchildren in the prepubertal period was worse than in the postpubertal period. At the age of 15–16, there are more persons with very high, high and above average levels of physical development. Children before puberty have a 100% mesomorphic physique. At the end of puberty, individuals with different somatotypes were observed: 68 % (21 individuals) have an average harmonious development, or a mesomorphic body type. Disharmonious physical development with stunted growth (brachymorphic type) is noted in boys, while stretching processes prevail in girls (dolichomorphic type). The adaptive capabilities of the body deteriorate with age. 53 % of 5th graders have satisfactory adaptation capabilities, and only 33 % of 11th graders.
Thus, schoolchildren in the prepubertal period have better adaptation reserves of the body (there are no persons with unsatisfactory adaptation) than in the postpubertal period. Therefore, the adaptive capabilities of the body deteriorate with age. This is obviously influenced by hormonal changes during puberty, as well as systematic physical and mental stress.
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