Barium and cadmium heavy metal ions – reactions of plants and cell cultures


  • Irina Zaitseva Oles Honchar Dnipro National University
  • Larisa Bronnikova Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Natl. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine



Ва2 and Cd2 cations, salinity, water stress, tolerance, cell selection


Plant growth and development are the results of genotype/environment interaction and are realized under genetic control. The genetic potential realization completeness essentially depends on surroundings. Biotic and abiotic stresses inhibit the ontogenesis. The reaction on various stresses determines the difference between sensitive and tolerant genotypes. In the first case pathological changes develop in organism. The adaptive processes prevail in the second one. During the division the reactions of entire plant and reactions of cellular level are observed. Organism reactions are directed towards the separation of stress agent from active metabolism zone. They are outward displacement, accumulation in special organs. Cell reactions are cooperated with adaptive metabolism changes. Parallel investigation of both events is needs to estimate the part of each variant in total organism tolerance. In such case the comparative analysis of plant and cell culture obtained from the plant is the most optimal approach. To have the true information it is necessary to estimate some parameters. First point is the detection of agent with all-round stress pressure. Another one is the determination of common reactions of adaptation to such stressor. Heavy metal ions (HMI) satisfy the requirements, especially barium, Ва2+and cadmium, Cd2+cations, HMI – are the most dangerous toxicants because they can product vast pathological alterations in different tissues of plant organism. But usually HMI act together with abiotic stresses and their joint action is more hazardous. Cd2+and Ba2+cations toxic pressure is similar to osmotic stresses. There was shown that Ba2+ interrupted the K+ intercellular transport and its outward transportation. Ba2+ ions affect the Na+ transport too. Salinity has the similar effect. Cd2+ ions injure the water status of the organism. Cd2+ negative force due to their influence on LEA. Stress pressure of both cations develop on cellular level. So it is possible to use these cations in cell selection. Cell selection is a biotechnology that gives the opportunity to manipulation with cell populations. This method is connected with various selective systems elaboration to obtain variants with genetic changes in the massive of wild type cells. The type and the dose of stressor give the opportunity of the direction. The similarity of various agents stress pressure may be the approach for selection variants with combined tolerance. Ва2+and Cd2+ions demonstrate the similarity to osmotic stresses – salinity and water deficit.  The selection of forms with higher tolerance levels to those stresses will be the result.  Stress tolerance – is one of the fundamental plant features. The osmotic stress tolerance is polygenic feature. The analysis of variants with combined tolerance may open direct and cross links in the metabolism chains. This information extends genetic, biochemical, physiological aspects of tolerance.


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How to Cite

Zaitseva, I., & Bronnikova, L. (2023). Barium and cadmium heavy metal ions – reactions of plants and cell cultures. Notes in Current Biology, (1 (5), 9–14.