Flower morphology and phenology of Cyrtanthus elatus (Jacq.) Traub (Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil.) in culture
Keywords:Cyrtanthus elatus, phenology, morphology, pollination, flower, fruits
Cyrtanthus elatus is an endemic in the flora of South Africa, from the southern coastal mountains from the northern city Mossel Bay in the Western Cape to the city of Humansdorp in the Eastern Cape. It occurs in colonies on loamy, acidic soils on moist slopes facing south, in full sun or light shade. Flowering intensifies during bush fires. C. elatus plants grow rapidly in summer and are evergreen, new leaves appear unprotected after the fire and flowering, which takes place at any time from late spring to mid-autumn.
It includes distinct forms of growth, some of which are characterized by rapid reproduction of bulbs and unstable flowering, at least during cultivation, while others bloom profusely, and are less likely to vegetative propagation. In the Department of Tropical and Subtropical Plants at agrobiostation of the Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University, the first collections of C. elatus (Amaryllidaceae) appeared at the agricultural station in 2008. Phenological observations have shown that C. elatus plants enter the general period at the age of 2-3 years. The morphological features of flowers and fruits of C. elatus in culture were studied. When plants reach a generative ontogenetic state, we kept records of timing and duration of flowering. Plants were artificially pollinated during flowering for quality fruit formation. Model plants bloom for 16-20 days and have 4-5 flowers in the inflorescence, each of which blooms on average for 3-4 days. Phenological observations of flower blooming and fruit ripening were carried out. The morphological feature, especially gynoecium and androecium, have been studied. Pollen retains 100% viability and contained in pollen in large quantities. The fruit is a fleshy capsule ellipsoidal shape, 37-39 mm long, seeds 7-8 mm long, flat, black with a winged growth. Morphological features of the flower, a lot of pollen are an adaptation to buzz-pollination.
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