Morphological Features and Parameters of Acid Hemolysis of Alcoholized Rats' Erythrocytes Under the Action of Taurine
Keywords:taurine, ethanol, erythrocyte hemolysis, acid resistance of erythrocytes
Human consumption of taurine-containing energy drinks along with alcohol leads to severe functional disorders and even death. Erythrocytes are a convenient object for investigation the influence of chemicals on the cell membrane and a criterion for assessing the state of cell membranes under the action of various factors – parameters of acid hemolysis of red blood cells. The study was performed on a red blood cell suspension of white male rats in 2 hours after a single intragastric exposure of 40 % ethanol or water in control (4 g per 1 kg of body weight). The cell suspension was incubated for 30 min at 37 °C in the non-taurine and taurine-containing (0,45 mM) medium. It was found that the intensity of erythrocytes hemolysis depends on the influence of ethanol and the presence of taurine in the incubation medium. The hemolysis time of 50 % of erythrocytes was increased in 1,20-fold (p <0,01, n = 4) and 1,38-fold (p <0,01, n = 4) in the control and experimental groups of rats respectively in response to their incubation in the taurine-containing medium. However, during the action of taurine, the time of total hemolysis of alcoholized rats’ erythrocytes was decreased in 1,27-fold (p <0,05, n = 4) compared to the control. The distribution of erythrocytes in groups for resistance to HCl showed the largest number of low resistant and the smallest number of moderately resistant cells in the blood of alcoholized rats. The highest percentage of erythrocytes with increased resistance to HCl was observed under the action of taurine on erythrocytes of intact rats. We did not reveal any high-HCl resistant erythrocytes in blood sample of alcoholized rats after incubation in taurine-containing medium. We also observed aggregation of alcoholized rats’ erythrocytes (without the influence of taurine and after their modification by taurine) on micrographs of cells obtained by light and electron microscopy.
2. ClinicalTrials.gov (2011) Enteral nutrition in cancer patients (NCT01304446), available at : https:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01304446?term=taurine&rank=38 (accessed February 25, 2011).
3. ClinicalTrials.gov (2016) Effects of energy drinks (NCT02727920), available at: https:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02727920?term=taurine&rank=42 (accessed April 3, 2018).
4. Taranukhin, A. G.; Saransaari, P.; Kiianmaa, K.; Oja, SS. Hypoglycemia is one possible mechanism in the combined toxicity of ethanol and taurine. Adv Exp Med Biol. Taurine-9; 2015, 803. р 305–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15126-7_24
5. Wolk, B. J.; Ganetsky, M.; Babu, K. M. Toxicity of energy drinks; Curr Opin Pediatr; 2012, № 24(2), р 243–251.
6. Shah, А.; Nguyen, N.; Bhattacharyya, M. Energy implications of consuming caffeinated versus decaffeinated energy drinks. J. of Pharmacy Practice; 2015, Vol. 28(5), р 482–483. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190015585738
7. ClinicalTrials.gov (2016) Interaction of alcohol with energy drinks (AEDED) (NCT02771587), available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT0 2771587?term=taurine&draw=3&rank=2 (accessed October 19, 2016).
8. Zaporozhan, V.M.; Naphanjuk, V.K.; Gorjanova, N.O.; Bazhora, Ju.I.; Kresjun, V.J.; Servec'kyj K.L. Morfologija klityn krovi laboratornyh tvaryn i ljudyny: Atlas. [Morphology of blood cells of laboratory animals and humans: Atlas]. Odesa, 2002, 118s. (in Ukrainian)
9. Sommez, M.; Ince, H. Y.; Yalcin, O. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size. PLOS One; 2013, № 8(9).: e76579. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076579
10. Lee, S. Y.; Park, H. J.; Best-Popescu, C.; Jang, S.; Park, Y. K. The effects of ethanol on the morphological and biochemical properties of individual human red blood cells. PLOS One; 2015, 10 (12): e0145327. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145327
11. Tyulina O. V.; Huentelmanbc, M. J.; Prokopieva, V. D.; Boldyrev, A. A; Johnson, P. Does ethanol metabolism affect erythrocyte hemolysis? BBA - Molecular Basis of Disease; 2000, V.1535 (1), р 69–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0925-4439(00)00086-7
12. Gossai, D.; Lau-Cam, C. A. The effects of taurine, hypotaurine, and taurine homologs on erythrocyte morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin alterations due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in the rat. Adv Exp Med Biol. Taurine-7; 2009, 643; р 369–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-75681-3_38
13. Ogaj, M. A; Stepanova, Je. F.; Holodov, D. B.; Nikolaevskij, V. A. Antioksidantnyj i membranostabilizirujushhij jeffekt taurine [Antioxidant and membrane stabilizing effect of taurine]. Vestnik VGU. Serija «Himija. Biologija. Farmacija». 2011, №1, S. 186–191. (in Russian)
14. Ljahov, A.M.; Jakovljeva, I.Ju.; Olijnyk, S.A. Osoblyvosti vzajemodii` ergogennyh likars`kyh zasobiv taurynu ta jaktonu z fosfolipidnymy engmjurivs`kymy monosharamy. [Features of the interaction of ergogenic medicinal products taurine and jakton with phospholipid Langmuir monolayers]. uchasni problemy toksykologii`. 2008, №4, S. 45–48. (in Ukrainian)
15. Jefimenko, N. V.; Sybirna, N.O. Vplyv L-argininu ta NΩ-nitro-L-arginin metylovogo efiru na strukturno-funkcional`nyj stan membrany erytrocytivshhu riv za umov alkogol`noi` intoksykacii` [Influence of L-arginine and NΩ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes of rats under alcoholic intoxication]. Visnyk L`vivs`kogo universytetu. Serija biologichna. 2016, Vyp. 73, S.137–143. (in Ukrainian) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1903-4_16