Materials for the Study of the Species Composition of the Gall-Forming Insects of «Tsumans’ka Pushcha»
Keywords:gall-forming insects, Cynipidae, Tenthredinidae, Tephritidae, Cecidomyiidae, «Tsumans’ka pushcha»
Gall-forming insects develop in plants tissues and induct pathological formations in them (the galls). Representatives of different groups of gall-forming insects are a significant in number and functions component of the entomofauna at national parks. This contribution contains data on the distribution, quantity, biology and ecology of eight species of gall-forming insects found at the territory of the Kivertsi National Nature Park «Tsumanskaya Pushcha» during the preliminary studies conducted in 2018. The research was carried out both in forest, at oak plantations mainly, and at open areas of the park (forest lawns, clearings, river banks, slopes of the hills). The material obtained from the collected galls and head flowers. The head flowers of Centaurea spp. were kept separately to obtain the imagoes, thus species could be reliably identified. As the result, five species of Hymenoptera (four species of gall wasps and one species of sawdust) and three species of Diptera (two species of ephritid flies and one species of gall midges) were recorded. A clear distribution of studied species among the lever of host plants was revealed. Overall, three species of gall-forming wasps, Andricus foecundatrix (Hartig, 1840), Cynips quercusfolii Linnaeus, 1758 and Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy, 1785), inhabit the tree level; two species, Euura amerinae (Linnaeus, 1758) and Lasioptera rubi (Schrank, 1803), are associated with scrub vegetation; three species, Urophora cardui, U. quadrifasciata and Aulacidea hieracii (Linnaeus, 1758), are the parasites of herbs. All studied species are oligophagous in trophic specialization. The research showed that the group of gall-forming wasps contains species developing on weeds and suppressing their development (Urophora cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) and Urophora guadrifasciata (Meigen, 1826)), and the species that affect the economically important species of plants (A. foecundatrix, C. quercusfolii, N. numismalis, Lasioptera rubi (Schrank, 1803)). Gall-forming dipterans, as well as gall-forming wasps, occupy an important place in the phytophagous complex due to the high specificity. Thus, the transfer of this insects to other plant species becomes impossible. The article contains 8 photos illustrating various types of damage made by gall-forming insects.
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